Barley has been the main forage grain in Ukraine for most of the past 10 years in terms of consumption. Spring barley accounts for over 90% of the barley crop. It is typically planted in April and harvested in August in the main barley growing region – eastern Ukraine. It is the frequently used crop for the spring reseeding of damaged or destroyed winter harvests. The area is inversely related, to some degree, to the area of winter wheat. Winter barley is the least cold-tolerant of the winter cereals and its production is restricted to the extreme south. In 2011 its production was 9.23 mn t. (- 24,6% to 2010).
Currently industrial farming practices rely heavily on grain. Livestock producers often use corn and soy as a base for their animal feed because these protein-rich grains help bring animals to market weight faster and because they are cheaper than other feed options. Field corn takes a longer growing season and is left to grow until the kernels are hard and have a very low moisture content. The corn is then used mostly for feed for animals.
Ukraine is one of the largest suppliers of wheat to the world market. The low and medium quality wheat averaged about 50% in the total structure of Ukrainian wheat exports to the world markets over
Traditionally, Near East, North African and European Union countries have been the main consumers of Ukrainian wheat. This is due to relative geographical vicinity of these regions to Ukraine,